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  • A Redox 2-Cys Mechanism Regulates the Catalytic Activity of Divergent Cyclophilins

    Author(s): Campos, BM.; Sforça, ML.; Ambrosio, ALB.; Domingues, MN.; Souza, TACB.; Barbosa, JARG.; Paes Leme, AF.; Perez, CA.; Whittaker, SB.;Murakami, MT.;Zeri, ACM.; Benedetti, CE. | Source: Plant Physiology, 2013, v.162, p.1311-1323. | DOI: http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/​10.​1104/​pp.​113.​218339 | Published: May 2013

    Abstract: The citrus (Citrus sinensis) cyclophilin CsCyp is a target of the Xanthomonas citri transcription activator-like effector PthA, required to elicit cankers on citrus. CsCyp binds the citrus thioredoxin CsTdx and the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and is a divergent cyclophilin that carries the additional loop KSGKPLH, invariable cysteine (Cys) residues Cys-40 and Cys-168, and the conserved glutamate (Glu) Glu-83. Despite the suggested roles in ATP and metal binding, the functions of these unique structural elements remain unknown. Here, we show that the conserved Cys residues form a disulfide bond that inactivates the enzyme, whereas Glu-83, which belongs to the catalytic loop and is also critical for enzyme activity, is anchored to the divergent loop to maintain the active site open. In addition, we demonstrate that Cys-40 and Cys-168 are required for the interaction with CsTdx and that CsCyp binds the citrus carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II YSPSAP repeat. Our data support a model where formation of the Cys-40-Cys-168 disulfide bond induces a conformational change that disrupts the interaction of the divergent and catalytic loops, via Glu-83, causing the active site to close. This suggests a new type of allosteric regulation in divergent cyclophilins, involving disulfide bond formation and a loop-displacement mechanism.

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  • Identification of novel interaction between ADAM17 and thioredoxin-1

    Author(s): Aragão, A.Z.B.; Nogueira, M.L.C.; Granato, D.C.; Simabuco, F.M.; Honorato, R.V.; Hoffman, Z.; Yokoo, S.; Laurindo, F.R.M.; Squina, F.M.; Zeri, A.C.M.; Oliveira, P.S.L.; Sherman, N.E.; Paes Leme, A. F. | Source: The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2012, v.287, p.40371-43082. | DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.364513

    Abstract: ADAM17, which is also known as TNFα-converting enzyme, is the major sheddase for the EGF receptor ligands and is considered to be one of the main proteases responsible for the ectodomain shedding of surface proteins. How a membrane-anchored proteinase with an extracellular catalytic domain can be activated by inside-out regulation is not completely understood. We characterized thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) as a partner of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain that could be involved in the regulation of ADAM17 activity. We induced the overexpression of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain in HEK293 cells, and ligands able to bind this domain were identified by MS after protein immunoprecipitation. Trx-1 was also validated as a ligand of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain and full-length ADAM17 recombinant proteins by immunoblotting, immunolocalization, and solid phase binding assay. In addition, using nuclear magnetic resonance, it was shown in vitro that the titration of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain promotes changes in the conformation of Trx-1. The MS analysis of the cross-linked complexes showed cross-linking between the two proteins by lysine residues. To further evaluate the functional role of Trx-1, we used a heparin-binding EGF shedding cell model and observed that the overexpression of Trx-1 in HEK293 cells could decrease the activity of ADAM17, activated by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or EGF. This study identifies Trx-1 as a novel interaction partner of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain and suggests that Trx-1 is a potential candidate that could be involved in ADAM17 activity regulation.

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