Fluorescence can provide information on changes in protein conformation due changes in the environment (like pH, temperature, ligand adition, etc). It involves using a beam of light, usually ultraviolet light, that excites the electrons in molecules of certain compounds, using a high energy wavelength. After this excitation, the electrons dissipate this energy emitting light in a higher wavelength, generally visible light. A complementary technique is absorption spectroscopy.
This technique is very used to study structural behavior of macromolecules, like proteins. It is also used to monitor ligand bind, kinetics and many other interactions, which usually happens in solution. To use fluorescence you must have a solution with one fluorophore that does not interferes with absorption of any component in solution. For polarization experiments, absorption it a minor problem.
In LEC we have as ISS PC-1 fluorimeter coupled to a thermal bath, polarizers, monocromators, filters and a lifetime module. Our sample holders are for samples from 250 to 2000uL