LNBio was created in December 2009, when the Directors of the Brazilian Association for Synchrotron Light Technology (ABTLuS) gave autonomy to the Center for Structural and Molecular Biology (CeBiME). Over 10 years CeBiME operated as part of the National  Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) carrying out  research to  elucidate the three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules.

LNBio was established to perform  research activities in biosciences as well as to support R, D & I initiatives in strategic areas such as biotechnology, materials for healthcare and life sciences.

During the last four years, the Laboratory has expanded, modernized and diversified its open facilities for external users. LNBio has also established an innovation core to  meet the National policies for innovation and development, the Laboratory has also organized its internal research into five thematic programs, which are focused on highlighted themes: cancer biology, neglected diseases, cardiac biology and metabolism, and microorganisms and plants.